Lam-rim and Meditation on Emptiness (Audio and Unedited Transcript)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
New York, NY 1990 (Archive #791)

An audio recording and unedited transcript of a teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment (lam-rim) and emptiness by Lama Zopa Rinpoche at the Great Enlightenment Temple, New York, on September 8, 1990. The edited version of this talk has been published as Chapter Three in the book How Things Exist: Teachings on Emptiness.

Lama Zopa Rinpoche at Sera Je Monastery, India, 2013. Photo by Bill Kane.

[Rinpoche chanting in Tibetan]

So what the essence of the teaching of Buddha, what Buddha said you see, the Four Noble Truths that which is contained in this one stanza:

Do not commit any unwholesome actions,
And accumulate the perfect virtue,
Subdue one's own mind -
And this is the teaching of the Buddha.

[Chinese translation]

Then next, the essence, the next teaching, the next prayer, the essence of what it is saying, to remember how things are, the self and action, object, enemy, friend, stranger body, possessions, so forth, all these things, how they are in the nature of transitory.

That they change within every second by cause and conditions and because of that that these things can be stopped at any time, so therefore there's no basis to get angry, there's no reason, value, there's no basis, no worth to get angry, to have dissatisfied mind, desire and to rise the wrong conceptions, the concept of permanence.

So, while these things are transitory impermanent nature, then believing something else than what they are in the reality that is the fundamental problem of life, that is the fundamental suffering in our life.

So to practicing awareness, being mindful of their nature - self, action, object these objects - that brings peace, that brings tranquility, peace in the mind, becomes protection for the life, for the mind, protection from the disturbing thoughts, from the wrong conceptions, from all the harmful thoughts, harming to oneself and for other sentient beings, harmful thoughts and harmful actions, the karma.

So with, when we live the life with the other thoughts concept of permanence looking at these things contradictory to the reality, looking at these things something else which doesn't exist in the reality then when our life turns, when we live the life with these thoughts then there's problems in the life, then there's confusion in the life, that itself is confusion and that brings many others, hundreds, thousands of other problems.

So this practice, the meditation impermanence in everyday life, in other words, the awareness in the reality of these things as they are, that becomes so essential, so important basis for happiness, peace of mind, the best protection for the life and then on the top of that, when we talk about, when we say "I" we are labeling, we are making the I to exist, the self when we say "I", when we label, by depending, because of the reason and the aggregates, the association of body and mind, then we say "I", by thinking of the aggregates and what it does and by, so using that as the reason or by depending on this, then we label "I" "I'm listening to Dharma," as the aggregates is listening to Dharma, then "I am listening to Dharma," as the aggregates is sitting on the chair, then "I am sitting on the chair." So we label when we think of the I, when we hear "I," when we talk "I," it all means putting the label "I," giving label "I" putting the label on the aggregates and depending on the aggregates.

So listening to teachings, the action of I listening to teachings, again we impute what the senses are doing, the aggregates what I, what the mind is doing aggregates, the mind, what it is doing. So as that is paying attention to the words, so "I am listening," so "listening to teachings." So again that is imputed.

Then same thing object, it's the same thing, teachings, this also is imputed on the words, while it's imputed this label "teachings" on the words what one hears what Buddha taught, those meanings.

And then when we think enemy, when we say, when we hear "enemy," again that is imputed, one has put the label "enemy." Then when one think "friend" also one put the label then "friend." Then stranger one put the label "stranger" depending on the aggregates.

So possessions when we see possessions, wealth, money so forth, again we put the label on the basis, depending on those particular bases and same thing this body also again we put the label. When we hear, when we think "body," again it's a label that is imputed upon this, on this base. This, not just this the main body, five limbs then on that depending on this base then we label "body."

So from morning until night, whatever we talk, whatever we hear, whatever we think, we're talking about the labels. Every time when we think we're putting label on things. Every time from morning till night when we think, when we talk, we have conversations talking in the office family, in the job, constantly we are putting the label, we are making things to exist, we are putting label. So anything that we think, we think of the labels that which is imputed.

So for example, this clock, the label "clock" then again each piece has a label, each part of this has a label. So that label is put on that label, that label is put on that label, that label is put on that label so like that, so down to the atom and atom is also a label that is merely imputed on the another atom. And that atom is imputed on another atom, so since atoms on the particles atoms are particles. As mentioned, scientifically discovered particles as well as in the Prasangika the four schools, the four Buddhist schools, Madhyamika school and especially the last one, the Prasangika school says, their philosophy is that atoms are particles.

So however so one label is given another label, then that label is given on another label so like that. The whole thing down to the atoms, atom's atom, atom's atom, like that the whole thing is it's piles of labels. But then why, why do you see so concrete this watch? But why do you see so concrete this clock so that's another question. That we have to analyze, whether it exists or not.

So in reality like this. So therefore everything, samsara, nirvana, everything from morning till night what we talk, about the world, about the family, about the ?firm, about happiness, suffering everything is labeled, imputed by the mind. Everything came from the mind, imputed by the mind.

So now you can understand the watch, so watch, it exists by depending on this basis this particular basis which does the function of telling the time and your thought which labels "clock." Yeah, so therefore the clock is not independent, clock is dependent arising, clock is not independent, clock doesn't exist from its own side. Clock exists by depending on your mind and that base which does that particular function, telling the time.

So clock is clock is completely empty of existing from its own side, clock is empty from its own side. Clock exists from the side of the mind, not from there, but from the side of the mind, in the view of the mind, there's a clock the mind, in the view of the perceiver or in the view of the mind, there's a clock. However so clock, when we hear "clock" it means dependent arising when we hear "clock" dependent arising. Depending on these two things then it exists. When you hear "clock" something that which is merely imputed on the base by the mind so clock itself means dependent arising, itself means being imputed, itself is a label means imputed by the mind.

So now same thing, I, means again, I means dependent arising. Depending on the aggregates and the thought which labels, the I exists. So when you hear "I" what it means is dependent arising being labeled, being merely imputed by the mind, came from the mind. It's labeled so it came from the mind, I is a label, so it came from the mind. what is called I is a label came from the mind. So the I, there's no I, the I is empty of existing from its own side....

And different objects, sound, form and so forth, again what they are is nothing other than what is merely imputed, what they are is nothing else other than what is merely imputed, by depending on [fades]. So what is called form, that which has color and shape which becomes object of the sense of the eye, on that then is labeled form. On that, depending on that, then form is merely imputed.

So like that, sound, that particular phenomena that the sense of ear is able to distinguish, which becomes object of sense of ear, on that sound is merely imputed by the mind.

So like this form, sound, smell, taste, tangible, all these are merely imputed by the mind, depending on become objects of those particular senses. So there's no such thing as form, sound, smell, taste, tangible, real one from its own side. That is completely empty. Only what exists is that which is merely imputed by the mind, which came from the mind, only which exists is that which came from the mind, which are merely imputed by the mind. That one, this phenomena exists, but those other phenomena don't exist. But these phenomena, form, sound, smell, taste so forth which appears to us nothing to do with the mind, nothing to do with your mind, something real from its own side, so that is completely, that this form, sound, smell, taste, these things are completely illusion, hallucination.

So, like this, all samsara and nirvana, everything, from morning until night, whatever we talk, blah, blah, blah from morning until night what we talk on and on so the whole existence completely exists in all these things are empty from its own side except what exists is came from the mind merely imputed by the mind....

TADYATHA OM MUNÉ MUNÉ MAHAMUNAYÉ SOHA....

Sa zhi po kyi....
Sangye cho dang...

[Translation in English and Chinese of sangye cho dang.] [long pause]
Prayers in Tibetan.

It is extremely important for the, so to obtain happiness for self and especially to obtain happiness for all sentient beings, to obtain all the happiness for the sentient beings, to practice bodhicitta, the altruism.

So in order to generate the realization of bodhicitta, which is the door of the Mahayana path, the source of enlightenment, to achieve enlightenment, so that need to generate the preliminary the renunciation of the whole entire samsara. And that, to generate the renunciation of the whole entire samsara need first to generate the renunciation to this life, the cutting off clinging to this life desire, worldly desire that which clings to this life, so this is the main obstacle to our actions, the actions of body, speech and mind, to become Dharma. So, without cutting off this worldly concern clinging to this life, to one's own happiness but just this life, so without cutting off this worldly concern, in other words, without freeing oneself from this worldly concern which is the basis of our everyday life problems, obstacles to practice Dharma, the main obstacle to practice Dharma and all other day-to-day life, all the confusions.

So, yeah, so for that reason one need to meditate on the graduate path of the lower capable being. So then, so like this, first of all, I think, so within one's own mind if there's no compassion, the good heart, then there's, what is there is the self-cherishing thought then because of that then the all other disturbing thoughts rises, the anger, dissatisfied mind desire, jealousy and then also one, because of the self- cherishing thought also one do not that interferes to develop wisdom, that interferes to eliminate ignorance. So also one, so depending on the self-cherishing thought then also one one follows the ignorance. So like this.

So without the good heart, such as the compassion, then with those other thoughts, it harms to oneself, it harms to other sentient beings. So from the birth until now, by following, when we do not practice compassion, loving kindness, when our mind being under the control of self-cherishing thought and those other disturbing thoughts it gave a lot of harm to other sentient beings. So the nearest sentient beings, the family, the people around oneself, those creatures around oneself, the nearest sentient beings, from there it gave harm to many other sentient beings, even this life. When our mind is not in good heart, in the nature of patience or in the nature of compassion, like this, good heart.

So like this if these disturbing thoughts were completely eliminated in the past, then there's no reason to rise these things in this life, there's no reason to be born with these the disturbing thoughts. Because these disturbing thoughts were not eliminated in the past lives, so that's why we're born with these disturbing thoughts, such as this egocentric mind, the self-cherishing thought, like this. So, from beginningless rebirths we did not eliminate these disturbing thoughts, the self-cherishing thought, ignorance, anger, attachment, these things we did not eliminate, so with these thoughts we have been giving harm, not only oneself but to other sentient beings. So numberless other sentient beings, to all sentient beings. So if we still do not change our attitude, if we don't do something in this life, by having this perfect human rebirth, if we don't do something with this mind, if we don't get done something to eliminate these things, these disturbing thoughts, then same thing also in future lives, so life to life continuously one give harm to other sentient beings besides oneself.

So, by having good heart, compassion towards other sentient beings, all other sentient beings they don't receive harm, starting from the family, the nearest sentient being with whom one live together, with whom everyday life one deal with, one eat, work together, live together. So by having good heart towards others, starting from the family, from the nearest person to all other sentient beings, they don't receive harm from you, they receive happiness. So they don't receive harm from you so that is the peace what they are receiving from you. As peace is dependent to you.

So on the top of that, by having compassion within one's own mind, one benefit, besides not giving harm others, one benefit starting from the nearest sentient being, from there towards all sentient beings, one benefit, one cause happiness, free others' sufferings, free others from the sufferings and cause happiness to other sentient beings, so this is what, by having compassion, this good heart, what comes as a production, as a result in the action benefit from the nearest person, nearest sentient being, towards all other sentient beings.

So therefore if you have good heart then all others receive peace, happiness; if we don't have, if we do not change our attitude, do not develop our mind, if we let our mind under the control of the self-cherishing thought, and those other disturbing thoughts then starting from the nearest sentient being then towards all sentient beings receive harm from oneself. So therefore we are completely responsible all sentient beings happiness, each of us here are completely responsible to pacify the sufferings of all sentient beings and to obtain happiness for all sentient beings, temporary and ultimate, especially ultimate happiness.

Even all other sentient beings, even the whole rest of the family do not practice compassion, good heart, what they do towards to you is only harm attitude towards to you is that they don't love you, that they hate, and action only harm, now even the whole country, how many million people in the country there are, their attitude towards you is hatred and in action only harm towards you. Now even all sentient beings they don't practice good heart towards you, all sentient beings they hate you and what they do in the action towards you is only harm, but now even all sentient beings they hate you and what they do is only harm towards you, but there's nothing so much to be depressed because you are one person. So you are one person, so even you are suffering, even you are born in the hells, suffering, one person, nothing so much to be depressed. Or even you achieve liberation, ultimate happiness for yourself, there's nothing so much to be excited because you are one person, one being, one living being.

But now, if this one person does not practice good heart, the danger is, the great danger, this one person, if doesn't practice good heart, if there's no compassion in his mental continuum, in his heart then there's danger this one person gives harm to the numberless sentient beings. So whom this one person gives harm is numberless. So this is much more terrifying. Like it happened in the world, like it happened historically many times that one person killed many million people like that. So many million people, how terrifying that is. One person not practicing patience, one person not practicing good heart, how great harm to many millions of people, and this is without counting the animals, the creatures, living in the ocean, living on the ground, without counting those how much they were killed and they received harm. So like this.

So therefore, so if oneself doesn't practice good heart, compassion, then there's danger numberless other sentient beings receive harm. So therefore you the one person to practice good heart, first oneself to practice good heart first is the most crucial thing. It's so important for other sentient beings. So important this other, this one sentient being and so important, even more important, ten sentient beings, ten people in the family, five or ten or whatever, now it become even more important you to practice good heart. And now there are million of others, people, human beings in the country, even become more important to practice good heart. And now numberless human beings, numberless hell beings, hungry ghost, preta beings, animal beings, worldly gods asura, sura, the suffering sentient beings are numberless so now the need this one person, oneself, need to practice good heart become unbelievable the most important, utmost important.

So now, therefore one must practice good heart, and the altruism, one must generate altruism towards other sentient beings and in the action abandon giving harm and benefit to other sentient beings, on the top of that one benefit for the sentient beings. So if one can't benefit to the sentient beings at least then not giving harm other sentient beings. The very last practice what's left is to not give harm other sentient beings.

So if one does not change that action giving harm other sentient beings, if one doesn't stop that there's no practice left, there's no Dharma practice, there's no spiritual practice left if one cannot stop giving harm to other sentient beings.

So, now, on the basis of not giving harm others then benefiting other sentient beings, so it is not only causing them temporary happiness this life, physical, mental not only that, in regards, concerning to benefit for other sentient beings, so not just that, then more important, greater benefit than this is to cause others to have happiness in the long-run future lives. In all those future lives to have happiness. So to cause this is more important, to obtain this benefit is more important because it's long-run such incredible length of time until by generating the remedy of the path in their mind and stop the suffering circle of death and rebirth. So until that they have to be reborn and die then have to continuously experience these sufferings, continuously.

So the benefit what we cause others, to obtain others, now to cause them the long-run, happiness in all the future lives, now this is more important then this day-to-day life comfort, this life's temporary happiness to them.

Now even more important than this second benefit causing them happiness in all their future lives, more important than that is to end, to completely end the whole entire problems, true suffering, and causes, the karma and delusions. To bring them in ultimate happiness. Now this benefit, this is ultimate benefit and this is even more important than the previous one, the second one, the second benefit. Otherwise how much we cause them, the second benefit is also temporary happiness the temporary happiness, the temporary pleasure, the samsaric pleasure how much we cause others, there's no end. As long as they don't remove the cause of samsara, the karma and delusions, the action and the disturbing thoughts such as the ignorance not knowing ultimate nature of the I, the self, the aggregates, mind and so forth, they have to continuously they produce, until they eliminate the disturbing thoughts they produces karma and then that continuously creates samsara by leaving imprint on the mental continuum, imprint of the future life samsara, the suffering realm, the aggregates, which is the basis of all the problems, the rebirth, old age, sickness, death, so according to a human like this then many other problems.

So, until by generating the path in their mind, until they eliminate the true cause of the suffering, they have to experience the true suffering again and again. So there's no end, from their side they continuously create the cause of the problems so there's no end for their problems. So even the temporary happiness what we cause if you analyze this is samsaric pleasure and this is, if you analyze it is only suffering. It is labeled, it is appeared as pleasure, but it is not pleasure, these temporary samsaric pleasures on a feeling which is suffering then one labels pleasure and it appeared as pleasure, so it's not real, pure happiness. So if it's real, pure happiness more we work for, it should be developed, day by day, month by month, year by year should be developed more and more and more but that doesn't happen. More we work for it it only, the action only causes to decrease the pleasure, the action compounds to increase the discomfort.

So, like this, so therefore to cause them, to obtain the ultimate benefit, to bring them in the cessation of the whole entire suffering and causes, this becomes much more important to obtain the ultimate benefit becomes much more important than the previous one.

Now, even more important than this, the most important, that is to bring all the sentient beings in the peerless, the perfect state of peace, the full enlightenment. It completed his own mind, the state, the mental state which has ceased all the mistakes and which has completed in all the realizations, so this is what is called full enlightenment, Buddhahood state or full enlightenment. Now, so to bring all the sentient beings in this full enlightenment, this benefit, this ultimate benefit becomes most important among all those other benefits.

In order to complete this work, to bring all the sentient beings to the full enlightenment, that first one need to achieve enlightenment, oneself need to achieve the full enlightenment, this state which has ceased all the mistakes of the mind and complete in all the realizations. So for that then one need to practice lam-rim, the graduate path to enlightenment.

The three capable beings, how they are, who practice the graduated path, so the, the graduate path of the lower capable being, so this one the motivation, the attitude is left this life behind the attitude is completely cut off the clinging to this life, so that is the attitude generated by meditating on the perfect human rebirth, that it is highly meaningful and that it is difficult to achieve again and the impermanence and death, that death is definite to happen, that death can happen at any moment and at the death time nothing can benefit except only Dharma, body, possessions, relatives, surrounding people, nothing can benefit except only holy Dharma. And then sufferings, so if one dies with negative karma, without having purified negative karma, then by creating negative karma then one, again after the death, one takes rebirth in the lower realms, in the narak, preta, animal, those lower realms. So if we were born there then there's no happiness, no opportunity to practice Dharma, only suffering, then one experience the heaviest suffering. So then meditating on also karma.

So by generating these realizations the method, these meditations, the realizations of these meditations then one cut off clinging to this life. So that is the attitude, the aim of this lower capable being is to achieve happiness in the future lives, deva or human being, and for that in order to achieve this aim, then for that method one, in the action, one practice, one protect karma, taking refuge and protecting karma. So main thing is the protecting karma. So by realizing the shortcomings of the ten non-virtuous actions, by realizing that, how they are harmful and then how they are cause of the sufferings and then one, by seeing the benefits of living in the vows of morality, such as ten virtues, living in the vows, not committing, to abandon the ten non-virtues. So that is, living in those ten vows so that is practicing the ten virtues. So in other words, protecting karma, practicing morality to achieve the happiness of the future lives.

Then now, the middle capable being on the basis of the motivation to cut off clinging to this life then cut off clinging to the whole entire samsara, samsaric perfections, happiness, not having the slightest interest in the samsara, the whole samsaric perfections, happiness, so this is the motivation, the second capable being's motivation. So the aim, so this motivation is generated renunciation of the whole entire samsara is generated by meditating on the shortcomings of samsara, the true suffering, the general suffering of samsara and the particular sufferings of the deva realm, human realm, those, the shortcomings of samsara, so by meditating on that generate the renunciation of the whole entire samsara, so that is the motivation.

Then the aim is to achieve liberation for self, release just only from the samsara in other words, just the true suffering and the true cause of the suffering. So in order to achieve the liberation for self, then what, the method what one practices is the higher training of the morality and the concentration, the shamatha, tranquil abiding, and then on the basis of that, great insight. Then so the middle capable being the practice also based on the first capable being's, the lower capable being's practice, the living in the practice of the ten virtues, it's based on that. Now, so the difference is by the goal ys.

So now the third, the higher capable being, because having the full renunciation to one's own samsara, seeing one's own samsara like being in the center of the fire then by looking at others how they are suffering in samsara then one generate great compassion feeling so unbearable that other sentient beings are experiencing suffering of samsara. So other sentient beings, seeing other sentient beings in the samsara is like other sentient beings being in the center of the fire and suffering. So there's no happiness even for one second, at all, so like that, feeling so unbearable, generate the, such unbearable compassion rises, by looking at others, seeing how others are suffering in samsara.

Then, this compassion becomes the reason, this compassion seeing how others are suffering in the samsara, then, this compassion becomes a reason to generate altruism, so I must free them from all the sufferings and causes, so to do that, to be able to do that, one must see all the sentient beings' different levels of mind, for example in other words, another example a doctor, to cure one patient's disease, so the doctor, if the doctor doesn't know what disease that person has all the sicknesses what the person has and also all the treatments, the different treatments that should be given to the person at different times or even at the same time, so if the doctor doesn't know all the problems what the person has and all the methods how to, all the treatments how to cure the person's disease so cannot help, cannot cure the person, cannot cure the person perfectly, completely so need to know every single problem what each person has and every single treatment, have to know all the diagnosis and all the treatments, the doctor should know completely, to be able to completely cure the other person, each patient. So if oneself doesn't have that knowledge then you can't do perfect works for other patients.

So similar, so without understanding all sentient beings different level of mind, characteristics and all the different methods to guide them, to free them from all the sufferings, all the obscurations, to lead to the highest, the full enlightenment, this peerless happiness. So, who knows this is only omniscient mind that which can see all these things, every single different level of mind of the sentient beings and all the methods all the suitable methods is only omniscient mind. So therefore I must achieve omniscient mind, for the sake of all sentient beings, to free them from all the sufferings, to lead to enlightenment.

So so compassion become the reason to generate bodhicitta, so this is bodhicitta, altruism to achieve enlightenment for all sentient beings. So this is the motivation of the great capable being and his, the great capable being's aim is to achieve enlightenment for sentient beings, the great liberation for the sentient beings. So for that, in order to achieve this aim, then practice the method, the bodhisattva conduct, the six paramitas and then on the top of that, one who practice tantra, then one practice tantric path, so like this, the method and wisdom.

So, also the higher capable being's practicing six paramitas, practicing tantra is based on the middle capable being's practice of the three higher trainings and also it's based on the lower capable being's practice, living in the, protecting karma, living in the morality living in the practicing the ten virtues. So like this.

So the other than these three capable beings, those who are living the life just to obtain the happiness of this life, then this, it is capable being but this is ordinary capable being, it's not the real capable being, it's ordinary capable being. who doesn't work, who doesn't attempt to obtain happiness beyond from this life, who only live the life working for the happiness of only this life, so that is ordinary capable being. So, nothing special, nothing higher from the animals, the creatures, the pig or the goats, the cow, even the creatures the tigers, mouse, those tiny insects, ants, big tigers and so forth, they also they are very smart to destroy the enemies who harms them and to earn the means of living for themselves, for this life, happiness of this life even those animals, even the tiny ones like ant or even big, tiger and so forth they are very smart to obtain the means of living, to obtain happiness of this life to find, to obtain comfort of this life to find food and so forth, they are very smart.

So however all these are ordinary capable beings, who are just able to work only for the comfort of this life. So yeah, so that is not the real meaning of human life so even animals, those are non-human beings, even they could do this. So the real meaning of the human life that is greatest meaning of the human life is with bodhicitta then practicing the path in order to achieve enlightenment, the six paramitas, this path then in order to achieve enlightenment for sentient beings.

Then lower than that the great meaning of the human life lower than that is to achieve liberation for self then lower than that is to achieve happiness of future lives lower than that, the great meaning of the human life lower than that, lower than the second one is to at least to obtain the long-run happiness, the happiness beyond from this life so that is the lowest meaning of the human life. So like that.

So if you listen to Dharma, if you listen to the teachings to achieve enlightenment for all sentient beings then it becomes cause to achieve enlightenment for all sentient beings. If you listen to the Dharma just to achieve liberation for self, then it becomes cause of only that doesn't become cause to achieve enlightenment. So if you listen to the Dharma to achieve happiness of future lives, then it becomes cause of just that, happiness of future lives. It doesn't become cause of enlightenment, liberation for self.

Now if you listen to Dharma just for the happiness of this life, to get reputation, power worldly power, reputation and however the happiness of this life then even the subject what one listens is Dharma, even that is Dharma, Buddha's teaching, but one's own action of listening to Dharma does not become Dharma, action of listening to Dharma does not become Dharma. Even the subject is Dharma but action of listening to the teaching does not become Dharma, because the attitude is not Dharma, the motivation is not Dharma. It's non-virtuous motivation because worldly concern, the attachment clinging to this life.

So so any action from morning until night that we do, besides listening to Dharma, then anything that is done only, that is done with worldly concern to obtain only happiness of this life then all those actions become non-virtue. So non- virtue, so result of non-virtuous actions is as Lama Atisha explained rebirth in the narak, preta, animal these realms.

So, therefore you can see the suffering and happiness comes from our mind, it doesn't come from outside, it comes from our attitude, our everyday life attitude, positive attitude, negative attitude so depending on how we think, depending on how we live the life every day. So there is no outside creator who creates our happiness, suffering ys. First of all our happiness, suffering is not something that which did not have cause, it's not that. And not, there's no outside creator who creates our happiness, suffering. Our happiness, suffering is the creation of only it's the creation of our own mind, depending on positive and negative attitudes.

So Nagarjuna said the ignorance, anger, attachment, non- virtues that is born from that -the action that is born from that is non-virtue. From this, then all the evil migratory beings rises, means the hell beings narak, preta, animal beings ys. So they rises from these non-virtues. Then from the action that is born from the, that is born or that is motivated, from the non-ignorance, non-hatred, non-attachment mind, are virtuous action. Then from this, all the happy migratory beings rises. The previous one is the suffering migratory beings. Now, here, happy migratory beings rises, from these virtuous actions.

So like that so like this, from morning until night, the twenty-four hours, depending on our attitude then when we have positive attitude it produces the result, happiness; when we have negative attitude it produces the result, sufferings. So in the twenty-four hours, what, the happiness what we experience came from positive attitude and suffering what we experience came from the negative attitude. So like this.

So therefore, as oneself is the creator, so therefore there's great freedom, we have great freedom, since it's up to your mind, since it's just up to our mind we have great freedom to stop experiencing suffering and to obtain happiness that is by abandoning the cause, non-virtue, and practicing the virtue. So like that, by transforming the mind into virtue.

The creator of the samsara, the whole entire suffering and the cause, the karma and all other the disturbing thoughts, is the ignorance concept of true existence. The very root of the whole entire samsara, the whole entire problems, the true sufferings and causes, the karma, action or karma, and all other disturbing thoughts, ignorance not knowing Dharma and anger, attachment, then all the rest of the disturbing thoughts, the very root is the ignorance not knowing the nature of the I, nature of the self, ultimate nature of the self, concept of the truly existent self, this one.

To recognize this exactly without mistake is the most important, otherwise there's no way that we can escape from the, that can we can be liberated from the whole entire suffering of samsara, without recognizing the root, there's no way we can cut off the root ys.

So like this example now, when there is the aggregates, the body, aggregates, association of body and mind when there is these aggregates there but there's no thought, when there's no thought to label all these other thoughts that label Chui-nan, when there's no thought to label this Chui-nan for example, Chui-nan doesn't exist. There is the aggregates, association of body and mind, but when there's no thought to label Chui-nan, Chui-nan doesn't exist that time.

But if there's no aggregates, even there's the thought in the parents' minds or however even there's a thought to label Chui-nan but there's no aggregates, association of body and mind then again even that time, Chui-nan doesn't exist. first we have to understand this very clear. When there's aggregates but there's no thought to label Chui-nan, Chui-nan doesn't exist. When there's thought which labels Chui-nan but when there's no aggregates also that time Chui-nan doesn't exist.

So when that Chui-nan comes into existence is only when the aggregates, the base, the aggregates, the association of body and mind is there and there is the thought which labels Chui-nan. Then only that time then Chui-nan exists. So Chui-nan exists by depending on the base, association of body and mind, and mind which labels Chui-nan. Parents or whoever labeled the name Chui- nan so depending on the base, aggregates, and the mind which labels Chui-nan, so depending on those two then Chui-nan exists.

So you can see, Chui-nan is merely imputed by the mind. Chui- nan exists being merely imputed by the mind, depending on that aggregates. So, Chui-nan is empty from its own side. So that is the reality of Chui-nan.

When we think of Chui-nan, when we look at Chui-nan so like this, by depending on that particular aggregates, then we label Chui-nan, okay. Then we label Chui-nan, we don't see the Chui-nan first, first we see the aggregates association of body and mind, that particular base the particular form of body we see that first and that makes us to decide the label Chui-nan, the particular label Chui-nan ys. So we don't see Chui-nan first. We see the base first and then we label Chui-nan ys. We label Chui-nan, after we label Chui-nan, then Chui-nan appears to us. Only after that then there is appearance of Chui-nan to us. There's no appearance of Chui-nan before we label; before we label Chui-nan there's no appearance of Chui-nan to us. Appearance of Chui-nan is only after we labeled.

But when Chui-nan appears to us it doesn't appear as it is merely imputed by the mind. Chui-nan appears to us we forget, we are not aware that Chui-nan is merely imputed, that when one think, when one look at when one hold Chui-nan, we forget that it is merely imputed so it doesn't, not aware, so when Chui-nan, after labeling Chui-nan, when Chui-nan appears, it appears, it doesn't appear as it is merely imputed. It appears, when Chui-nan appears to us, Chui-nan appears something more than what is merely imputed, something more than that, something real, something more than what is merely imputed. Something extra, however unlabeled Chui-nan, unlabeled completely opposite to the reality. The reality is labeled Chui-nan, but when it appears to unlabeled, independent Chui-nan. You see Chui-nan but aspect not merely labeled, unlabeled, independent, you see the Chui-nan in that aspect there's something more on the top of that Chui-nan is merely imputed but on the top of that there's something extra, so like this table is covered by this cloth like that, so Chui-nan is merely imputed but doesn't appear that one, appears something which is completely, Chui-nan what appears to us is completely something else unlabeled, independent.

So that appearance is completely contradictory, how Chui-nan appears is completely contradictory to the reality, how Chui-nan exists. How Chui-nan exists is being merely imputed by the mind. So therefore this appearance is false, this unlabeled Chui- nan, real Chui-nan, Chui-nan from its own side is false, false because it's contradictory to the reality so therefore it's false. If it is according to the reality then it's not false, but because this is opposite to the reality how Chui-nan exists so therefore it is false, so this is the refuting object.

It’s like this, now, in the dusk time, in the Indian dusk time there is a piece, there's a rope different, anyway, different colored rope like color of snake anyway there's a rope curled in the road in the dusk time. So from the so there's no, before you, anyway so first thing is one sees this piece of rope there, curled this thing that which is not clear, we don't see that exactly as a rope as a rope you don't see. So due to time, dusk like this, and the way it's curled like that so by time is ?clear, so due to all this, so you see this thing, you see this form first this form first then one labels "snake." One labels "snake," so after one labels "snake" then there's appearance of snake. Now, so one forgot one is not aware the snake is merely imputed, snake that which appears is merely imputed by one's own mind one is not aware that because the snake does not appear in that way as merely imputed.

So after so before one put the label "snake" there's no appearance of snake. So first you see the form, unclear and dusk time and the way it's rolled and doesn't have clear senses to see that, so due to that, so you see that form and then one before one labels "snake" there's no appearance of snake, so only after one labels "snake" then there's appearance of snake. After one, one labels "snake" and one believe in your own label you label "snake" and you believe in that, then you see the appearance of snake, then there's appearance of snake. The appearance is something doesn't appear as merely imputed, it appears as it has existence from its own side, as it is real from its own side real snake unlabeled, independent.

So now, now this is, now here this is very easy because with this example however now so the way this snake appears, anyway there's no real snake there, there's no unlabeled snake, there's no independent snake there, there's not even snake there, here in this case, there's no snake, you cannot find snake on any part or on the whole group or on any parts of the rope or even the whole group of the rope, you cannot find snake, nowhere you can find snake there, nowhere there's snake. but you label snake and then it appears as snake, even that appearance doesn't appear as merely imputed; it appears as unlabeled. so it's not true, this snake which appears unlabeled which appears unlabeled, independent to you, to the perceiver until you see very clear that this is this rope, this is a piece of rope when you put a flashlight and all that being near until that time to the perceiver, to these senses, to this mind, the snake appears but unlabeled, independent, real snake. So you can see this is completely false.

So now like that, now, we relate to the I. Now by depending on the aggregates we label "I." After the imputation is done, the label "I," you believe in that then there's appearance of I. So the thought which labels "I" is not the ignorance, that is not the ignorance, root of samsara. That is nothing wrong, that is not the root of samsara, that is not the ignorance. So other thought, thought labeled "I" and then the I, as we believe in that, there is appearance of I.

So first of all it is clear that as I mentioned also last night that my aggregates, my body and mind, my mind, so, I is the possessor and my body and my mind, my body is the possession, so then possessor and possession they cannot become one they are different so therefore my mind is not the I mind is the possession and I is the possessor. These aggregates is what is received and I is the one who receives it I is the receiver and these aggregates is what is received, so they are not one, they are different.

So any of the aggregates, the five aggregates, the aggregate of form is not the I, feeling is not the I, recognition is not the I, compounding aggregates is not the I, consciousness is not the I, even the whole group is not the I - the I is nowhere on these aggregates, from the tip of the hairs down to the toes, anywhere it exists, nowhere it exists, from the tip of the hairs down to the toes, nowhere it exists, the I. Neither inside nor outside. On this body and mind, on these aggregates, nowhere the I exists, from the tip of the hair down to the toes, anywhere, cannot find anywhere.

But there is I in this room, in this temple, there is I. There is me in this temple, because, there is no other reason that there is me, I, in this temple, now, I am here in this temple, there's no other reason, only the reason is, except only the reason, the aggregates, the association of body and mind is here in this temple now. So by this it is believed I am here in this temple now, by that it is believed, just by that it is believed that I am here in this temple now. So, it is a concept, idea, it is an idea. Because the aggregates is here, so it is believed that I am here in this temple, but this is not the I, these aggregates is not the I and because this is the basis to be labeled I and I cannot be found anywhere; on this, I cannot be found anywhere, there's no I anywhere on this. Yeah, so first make clear that. So what is the I? How does the I exist? So you see becomes extremely fine, extremely subtle. There's no I on these aggregates, but there is I in this temple. There is I in the room. So what it is is nothing else than what is merely imputed by the mind so this is the reality. It is extremely subtle how the I is, how the I exists is extremely subtle. So this is what is called subtle dependent arising the Prasangika's view subtle dependent arising that which is so difficult to realize so dangerous, so subtle, extremely subtle how the I exists, to know exactly, so subtle it's very easy to fall in nihilism, that the I doesn't exist, very easy to fall in nihilism, from the true existence, eternalism, nihilism - in nihilism. So easy to fall in nihilism, to say that I doesn't exist. So therefore why it's so difficult, why Prasangika's view the dependent arising is so subtle is like this. So the I is not that it doesn't exist, but it's like doesn't exist, extremely fine, subtle.

So now, that's the reality, but the I for us doesn't appear that way. Completely something else, concrete, something unlabeled, independent real one from its own side. So how this thing happens to us, what makes the I, after imputed after the I is imputed, why it has to appear truly existent? Why it has to appear? Why doesn't it appear as merely imputed? Why doesn't it appear as reality, according to the reality? Why it appears opposite unlabeled, having existence from its own side? Why? Why doesn't it appear to us according to the reality?

So now this, so the I, the thought which labels "I" by depending on the aggregates that is not the ignorance. After believing the label then appears I and when the I appears, it appears different, having existence from its own side completely opposite to merely labeled. When it appears, completely opposite to the evolution merely labeled. So then the same continuation of thought, the thought that which labels I, the same continuation of that thought, when it starts to believe, the same continuation of that thought, earlier it's labeled the I the later continuation of that thought then start to believe that the I which is labeled appears having existence from its own side true existence.

Then believe, even the thought, the mind to which the truly existent I appears, still that is not the root of samsara. The root of samsara is now, is this thought, whenever it starts to believe this is true "This is true," whenever it start to believe, This is true, this is truly existent I what appears is true, then that time, this concept becomes, concept of true existence and this is the root of samsara. So this which believes that the I, the way the I, the I has an existence from its own side, not merely labeled, but has an existence from its own side. So, the thought which believes that is true, so just that, that the I has an existence from its own side, just that.

Even without completely exists from its own side or exists, that it's permanent or exists alone or with its own freedom, not all these wrong conceptions, these are not, existing with its own freedom without depending on the aggregates, ?continuation of aggregates all this is not the root of samsara. So the root of samsara is this thought, after having put the label "I," then the continuation of this thought when it starts to believe that the I appearing that it has an existence from its own side, there's something from its own side, an existence from its own side. So when this thought believes that is true then this is the root of the samsara.

So now like this now what makes to, the I which is merely imputed, what makes to appear that truly existent? What makes, that is the past-life -the past ignorance left imprint on the mind, on the mental continuum and this imprint projected, like the film with the machine together and electricity projects on the wall the things, like TV, all the people fighting or dancing or various things, there are different channels -different things that you can see -what, anyway, there's dancing part, there's one musician part, then one fighting part then one, anyway, many parts [GL] so now that came from the film from those stations so the imprint that which is left on the mental continuum by the past ignorance, this projected or decorated the true existence on the merely imputed I, it decorated, it's like painted I, decorated true existence on the mere I. So that is what we see concrete I. So imprint left by ignorance projected on the mere I. So so now that part is completely hallucination.

So, remember as I told before, the clock, this is labeled on another label, this is labeled on another label, but there's, it's reality like that but there's something concrete clock from its own side, there's something concrete clock there. So that is same thing. So actually that hallucination is projected by the imprint left by past ignorance, projected this concrete thing that the true existence, that clock from its own side. So now like this, so in the reality now I, the real I projected by this ignorance this real body, mind, body and mind existing from its own side projected by the ignorance.

So this house this temple, something real from its own side, something real, independent is projected, something concrete is projected from the mind, projected from the imprint left by the past ignorance. It's decorated there on the mere house, on the merely labeled house, on the mere house, decorated on there, so that's how it becomes a concrete house. So that concrete, appearance of that concrete house is a hallucination, so that doesn't exist. House exists, the merely labeled house exists, house exists, what is that? That is merely labeled house, that exists, but this concrete house doesn't exist. This house, unlabeled, concrete one, real house from its own side now this is decorated there, projected there, that is hallucination.

So any object, flower, when we see flower, there is a concrete flower, something real from its own side, again that is decorated, that is projected that hallucination, independent flower, real flower from its own side, again that is projected, decorated on the merely labeled flower by the mind, from the imprint left by the ignorance, the ignorance of true existence. So now all these concrete things, all these truly existent things we decorated on every merely labeled, on the mere existence, on the mere flower, we put truly existent flower.

So like this true existence we put on everything that which is, everything that which is merely labeled then we decorated with true existence on everything, we covered with true existence. So according to this hallucination projected by the mind or by the imprint left by the ignorance, now this self it doesn't exist, this house doesn't exist from its own side, independently. So the real, so the truly existent car, real car from its own side, doesn't exist, it's empty, doesn't exist, completely empty, all these are reality I, the I, real I from its own side, real car from its own side, real house from its own side, real car from its own side, real road from its own side, real house, real shop from its own side, the whole thing real one from its own side, truly existent so in the reality, all these are empty, completely empty; what exists is what is merely imputed, only that, only that.

So now you can see how things are empty in the reality. So the way to meditate is so you look at the I and appears real one from its own side so this is a projection think, This is a projection. This truly existent I is projected, the true existence is projected on the mere I by the mind or by the imprint left by ignorance, the hallucinated mind. So be aware that this real I, truly existent I is a projection, hallucination, projection, which is a hallucination. So think, This is the refuting object.

We have the appearance of this real I from its own side the truly existent, there's this appearance, but in your own mind, in your mind or in your heart think, being aware that this is refuting object, this is the projection of the imprint left by the hallucinated mind, ignorance and this is hallucination. So anyway, the point is this to recognize that this is a hallucination. This is refuting object, this is a hallucination. So then, when your mind has thought that this is hallucination, so then in the reality it is empty so this comes, this one comes.

So same thing, like this, outside objects, house, any object that we see, so we see the table and this is something completely real one from its own side this is hallucination, this is refuting object. So reality is not there. So you look at a flower. This, real flower appearing from its own side, this is projection, this is hallucination. In reality, it's not there. There's no such thing.

So like that so if we practice mindfulness how everything that is appearing to us existing from its own side are hallucinations. If we practice awareness like this then we are practicing always awareness of emptiness; it naturally comes awareness of emptiness. So more objects we look at, more emptiness. More names, more emptiness. So like that more objects we see or we have, become more meditation on emptiness.

So like that, yeah, so just this last part, if one meditate like this then it becomes very powerful, very effective meditation on emptiness. So I stop here.

So you can see our life in reality, now you can see the big differences, reality and our life. Now you can see how, like earth and sky, the life, how we live the life, how we create things, how we believe in the reality something else, completely contradictory.

So if we really, so that's the emptiness, that is the emptiness, like this. So I think if Chui-nan's not there translating, then I think, if somebody is translating then I think, then I'm finished by now [GL, RL].

[Dedication prayers in Tibetan]

Due to all the three times' merits accumulated by me and by all other beings, past, present and future, may I achieve, due to all these merits, due to all these empty merits, may the empty I achieve the empty enlightenment and lead the empty sentient beings to the empty enlightenment.

So I just described now hallucination and those things, so by remembering that then dedicate the merits is that way, with that awareness.

This way of dedicating is a pure dedication, "pure" means unstained by the concept of true existence. So it doesn't get destroyed by anger and heresy, this merit left doesn't get destroyed by rising heresy, anger, later.

So therefore it's very important to know how to dedicate the merit. Otherwise you put so much effort accumulating merit, in the actual action, motivation, then if dedication is not done correctly then, not done dedication or not done correctly then can be destroyed.